Journal Articles

Determinants of normal haemoglobin concentration among children in Ghana: A positive deviance analysis of nationally representative cross-sectional survey data

Maternal and Child Wellbeing

Anaemia among children under 5, is a public health problem of serious concern. In Ghana, an estimated 8 out of every 10 children are anaemic. This study employed a novel approach to investigate the determinants of normal haemoglobin (Hb) concentration among children aged 6 to 59 months, using data from the Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys. The results showed that maternal schooling was positively associated with normal Hb concentration among children. Children of non-anaemic mothers were 1.67 (CI=1.32, 2.10; P<0.001) times more likely to have normal Hb concentration relative to children of anaemic mothers. Compared to mothers who had less than 4 antenatal care (ANC) visits, mothers who had at least 4 ANC visits increased the odds of their children having a normal Hb concentration by 1.62 (CI=1.09, 2.40; P<0.018). Children living in middle and rich households had respectively 1.48 (CI=1.06, 2.07; p<0.021) and 1.59 (CI=1.08, 2.33; p<0.018) increased odds of having a normal Hb concentration relative to those living in poor households. Maternal education, anaemia, ANC attendance, and household wealth index are strong determinants of normal Hb concentration among children in Ghana. Strategies aimed at addressing childhood anaemia should take into account maternal anaemia, education, poverty and ANC attendance.




Associate Research Scientist

Dickson Amugsi

Dickson is an Associate Research Scientist attached to the Maternal…

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