This article seeks to investigate the association between caregiving to someone with an HIV-related illness and the socioeconomic status of the caregiver using a population-based survey of 1,587 older people living in Nairobi slums. Findings indicate significant differences in living arrangements, wealth, income, and expenditure between HIV caregivers and noncaregivers. HIV caregivers lived in larger households and were also more likely to live in households with a large number of children younger than the age of 15 years. Whereas a high proportion of HIV caregivers were ranked highly in terms of wealth status, differences in per capita income and expenditure were not significant when household size and other confounders were accounted for. The financial costs associated with caring for someone with a chronic illness and the reliance on family members with financial ability for material support, a common feature of African extended family systems, may account for the relative economic advantage of HIV caregivers.