The Regional Education Learning Initiative The interplay of top-down and bottom-up strategies to improving learning outcomes

Top-down, bottom-up, and incremental approaches are usually applied to the implementation of policies (Darling-Hammond, 2000). Even though these approaches have been solely applied to the policy process, they can also explain implementation mechanisms within education programs that have expansive in nature and seeks to influence policy outcomes in a particular educational skill area—learning outcomes. […]

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