PUBLICATION: Journal of Patient Preference and Adherence
Ndiaye, M., Nyasulu, P.S., & Nachega, J
Objective: Little is known about factors associated with suboptimal antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. Our objective was to determine the level of ART adherence and predictors of non-adherence among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adolescents at the Botswana-Baylor Children’s Clinical Centre of Excellence in Gaborone, Botswana. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 82 HIV-infected adolescents receiving ART and their caregivers were administered a structured questionnaire. The patient’s clinical information was retrieved from medical records. Outcome measures included excellent pill count ART adherence (.95%) and virologic suppression (HIV viral load ,400 copies/mL). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of ART non-adherence. Results: The overall median (interquartile range) ART adherence was 99% (96.5–100) (N = 82). Seventy-six percent of adolescents had excellent pill count ART adherence levels and 94% achieved virologic suppression. Male adolescents made up 65% of the non-adherent group (P = 0.02). Those who displayed suboptimal ART adherence were more likely to report having ever missed ART doses due to failure to pick up medication at the pharmacy (30.0% versus 9.7%, P = 0.03). In the multivariate logistic regression model, male sex (odds ratio [OR] 3.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13–9.54; P = 0.03) was the only factor which was independently associated with suboptimal ART adherence.