Boniface, R., Moshabela, M., Zulliger, R., MacPherson, P., & Nyasulu, P.
An estimated one-third of the world’s population is infected with tuberculosis (TB) . The human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV) pandemic has resulted in dramatic increases in TB case notification rates, particularly in resource-limited
settings . This is because people living with HIV have a much greater risk of developing active TB than HIV-uninfected individuals . South Africa is one of the countries most heavily affected by the dual HIV and TB epidemics , with an estimated 31% of all global TB cases occurring among HIV-positive individuals . For example, in Gugulethu, a township in Cape Town, over half of antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinic attendees had previously been treated for TB, one-quarter were diagnosed with active TB, and a further 10% developed TB during the first year following initiation onto lifelong ART .