Consultancy: Mapping the Policymaking Process in Key African Institutions
Due Date: 2013-10-30
APHRC is a leading Africa-based, African-led, international non-governmental research institution headquartered in Nairobi, Kenya, and conducting policy-relevant research on population, health, education, urbanization and related development issues in Africa. APHRC actively engages policymakers and other key stakeholders to achieve measurable policy impacts and ensure decision making across the continent is informed by rigorous evidence-based research. APHRC seeks the services of a consultant to map out the decision-making processes and gain a clearer understanding of how and why decisions are arrived at within Africa’s continental and regional organizations. This TOR stipulates the scope of work and key deliverables for this consultant for the period of November 2013 to January2014 for a maximum of 25 working days.
Evidence-based policy is public policy informed by systematically proven empirical evidence. The use of scientific evidence in policy and practice has potential to save lives, reduce poverty, improve wellbeing and advance development. In the absence of facts, policy-making will be guided by intuition, ideology, or conventional wisdom — or, at best, theory alone (Head, 2009). In many parts of the world, particularly the global south, policy decisions continue to be made in those ways. But in countries, including developing ones, which have used empirical evidence to guide policy-making, improved development indicators have been observed (Banks, 2009). For instance, the Government of Tanzania relied on findings of disease surveillance research to inform health service reforms that helped reduce infant mortality by 40 per cent (Sutcliffe & Court, 2005). An understanding of the factors that influence policymaking is imperative to making evidence a central part of decision-making processes in Africa. Evidence-based policymaking envisions a democratic, effective policymaking process where all relevant viewpoints are discussed in light of existing scientific evidence, ensuring that the best interests of the citizens are prioritized in all development choices made. Still, public policy-making is complex; often highly decentralized and non-linear, it involves numerous actors and factors. Furthermore, the existence and accessibility of relevant research, though necessary, does not always result in research informed polices. The clarifying of information needed by policymakers combined with an understanding of the mechanisms and pathways that lead to policymaking could help direct the research-uptake efforts of academic and research institutions, such as APHRC, in Africa (Sewankambo et al, 2006).
Objectives of the desk study
This desk study research is not intended to deal with the “art and science” of policymaking but from a practical standpoint provide an understanding of the steps involved in decision-making in national and regional government institutions and based on recent case study examples, provide concrete ideas to integrate evidence into their policymaking. Regional Institutions (EAC, ECOWAS and, the AU), International bodies (WHO and the UN system) and ministries of health, finance and education (in Kenya, Uganda, and Rwanda) play key roles in regional, economic and political integration and influence national policy processes at various levels. The consultant will analyze their decision-making processes in order to provide an understanding of the political dynamics and interests of a variety of African institutions, organizations, countries and leaders. The consultant is expected to describe the different types of policies, how they are made; models of policymaking; the policy cycles; agenda setting; influential cause groups, parties and party groupings; the core executive and departments; policy initiation, formulation, legislation and implementation; and a mapped out pathway of policymaking for each of the key listed institutions and the different types of policies that emanate from them. In examining the decision-making processes, the following questions shall guide the analysis: Who/What are the key drivers and interests that influence the institutions decision-making processes? How can national, regional and continental dynamics be managed and exploited by African research institutions? Is evidence used in the decision-making process and how? How are decisions made? What are the specific steps and pathways undertaken to approve or pass a policy?
Deliverables and Timelines
The consultancy shall cover the period of October to December 2013, for a maximum of 25 working days. The consultancy shall focus on three categories:
Regional Institutions – EAC and the AU
International bodies – WHO and the UN system
Ministries of health, finance and education in Kenya, Uganda and Rwanda
The consultant shall be expected to deliver a report that includes the following information:
The mapped out decision-making process of the above listed policymaking bodies including a descriptive narrative and visual diagrams that describe the step-by-step processes.
An explanation of how APHRC’s evidence can be best used in the processes or policy areas (such as strategy documents, resolutions, amendments, declarations) of each of the institutions listed.
Recommendations for more effective institutional embedding of research evidence in their decision-making processes (how/where can APHRC and other academic and research institutions provide input into the process?).
At least one case-study for each of the listed policy institutions on how a research institution was involved and research evidence utilized in the policymaking process.
A list of bodies, persons, committees or offices that would be most relevant for APHRC’s engagement in the policy-making processes and the modalities through which a research institution like APHRC can participate in the different policies. (Including attaining observer/participation status).
List of contacts of key persons in departments of the above listed institutions relevant to APHRC’s work (health, education, urbanization, population dynamics, research capacity strengthening).
Who can apply?
To be eligible, you must meet the following requirements:
Have completed a masters or doctoral degree in political science, public policy or other relevant subject at a recognized university.
Experience working closely with and demonstrated understanding of the decision-making processes in at least two of the listed regional institutions
Strong verbal and written communication skills
How to apply
Proposal applications should be submitted by e-mail to email@example.com, together with detailedCurriculum Vitae, a budget and workplan demonstrating the approach and timelines for carrying out the work. The deadline of applications is Wednesday,30 October, 2013. Only short-listed candidates will be contacted. Please address your application to the Human Resources Officer and indicate Policy Consultancy on the email subject-line. NB: The products developed and delivered through this consultancy remain the exclusive properties of APHRC, and shall not be divulged and/or used for other purposes without prior written authorization.