Introduction: Despite the relentless efforts to reduce infant and child mortality with the introduction of the National Expanded Programmes on Immunization (EPI) in 1974, major disparities still exist in immunizations coverage across different population sub-groups. In Kenya, for instance, while the proportion of fully immunized children increased from 57% in 2003 to 77% in 2008–9 at national level and 73% in Nairobi, only 58% of children living in informal settlement areas are fully immunized. The study aims to determine the degree and determinants of immunization inequality among the urban poor of Nairobi.
Method: We used data from the Nairobi Cross-Sectional Slum Survey of 2012 and the health outcome was full immunization status among children aged 12–23 months. The wealth index was used as a measure of social economic position for inequality analysis. The potential determinants considered included sex of the child and mother’s education, their occupation, age at birth of the child, and marital status. The concentration index (CI) was used to quantify the degree of inequality and decomposition approach to assess determinants of inequality
Results: The CI for not fully immunized was −0.08 indicating that immunization inequality is mainly concentrated among children from poor families. Decomposition of the results suggests that 78% of this inequality is largely explained by the mother’s level of education.
Conclusion: There exists immunization inequality among urban poor children in Nairobi and efforts to reduce this inequality should aim at targeting mothers with low level of education during immunization campaigns.
Keywords: Immunization, Health inequality, Concentration index, Urban poor, Kenya
Martin works under the Health Challenges and Systems research program. He is currently the Project Manager for the IN DEPTH Vaccination Project (IVP). He holds a Masters degree in Biostatistics (2005) and Applied statistics (2004) from University of...
Patricia is in charge of data management and sharing, and the coordination of data collection activities on various projects under the Urbanization and Wellbeing Research Program.She holds a Master of Public Health from the University...